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besides, but, except 的用法辨析

2011-03-27 14:13 来源: 作者:张小芳
1. 基本区别
三者都可表示除外,但besides 表示一种累加关系,意指除了什么之外,还有…… except but 则表示一种排除关系,意指除了什么之外,不再有……。如:
Besides his wifehis daughter also went to see him. 除他妻子外,他女儿也去看过他(即妻子女儿都去看过他)
Nobody went to see him except [but] his wife. 除他妻子外,没有一个人看过他(即只有他妻子去看过他)
注:在否定句中,besides 也表示……之外不再有…… ”,与but, except 同义。如:
No one passed the exam besides [except] Jim. 除吉姆外,没一个人通过考试。
2. 关于 but except
(1) 两者都可表示……外不再有……”,但含义上略有差别:but侧重指意义的几乎完整性,而 except 则侧重指后面除去的部分。比较:
All are here but one. 除一个人都到了。
All are here except one. 还有一个人没到。
(2) 在现代英语中,but 的介词用法十分有限,一般说来,它只能用在下列词语之后:
no, no one, nobody, nothing, nowhere
any, anyone, anybody, anything, anywhere
every, everyone, everybody, everything, everywhere
all, none
who, what, where
Everyone knows it but you. 除你之外大家都知道。
I haven't told anybody but you. 除你之外,我没告诉任何人。
No one but he [him] showed much interest in it. 除他之外没有一个人对此有很大爱好。
一般说来,若没有出现上述词汇,就不宜使用介词 but否则可能造成错句。但是 except 却没有以上限制。比较:
正:The window is never opened except in summer. 除夏天外,这扇窗户从不打开。
误:The window is never opened but in summer.
(3) but 一定不能用于句首,except 通常不用于句首:
除我之外每个人都累了。
正:Everyone is tired but (except) me.
正:Everyone but (except) me is tired.
误:But (Except) me, everyone is tired.
注:except for 可用于句首,表示 except 的意思:
正:Except for me, everyone is tired.
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